# Lotus: store data
This guide will show you how to import and make deals to store data on the Filecoin network using Lotus.
This section covers an "online" data import and is mostly suitable for smaller pieces of content. For "offline" import and data transfer check the very large files guide, which complements this one with some advanced knowledge.
In order to successfully add data to the Filecoin network the following steps need to be completed successfully:
- Data must be packed into a CAR file (opens new window).
- A storage deal between a miner and a client must be initiated and accepted by the miner.
- The data must be transferred to the miner.
- The miner must place the data in a sector, seal it and start submitting proofs to the network.
From that point, a storage deal is live on the network.
# Importing data
To locally import a regular file from your filesystem into Lotus run:
lotus client import ./your-example-file.txt
Upon success, this command will return a Data CID. This is a very important piece of information, as it will be used to make deals to both store and retrieve the data in the future.
You can list the data CIDs of the files you locally imported with:
lotus client local
If you need to import a full folder or many files, it is best to tar or zip them up first into a single archive.
# Importing custom DAGs
Advance IPLD users may want to import custom DAGs into Lotus (you may skip this section if that is not you).
The CAR file format allows to serialize any IPLD-DAG (i.e. a IPLD-CBOR). Custom IPLD-DAGs should be encoded in a well-known format (like CBOR) as otherwise Lotus will not know how to interpret them.
CAR files must contain the full DAG. Partial DAGs are not supported!
If you built your own CAR file, make sure to import it directly with the
# Files bigger than a sector
If your file is larger than a sector for the Filecoin network in use (opens new window), you will need to split your file into multiple parts first.
Storage miners will specify which size(s) they're offering so you can select the best option for you. Smaller sectors are faster, while larger sectors are more cost-effective.
# Making storage deals
Once the Data CID is known, it is possible to use it to make a storage deal with a miner.
# Find a miner
You can obtain a list of all miners in the network with:
lotus state list-miners t0xxxx t0xxxy t0xxxz ...
# Find the price and conditions
In order to ask for the terms offered by a particular miner, you can run:
lotus client query-ask <miner>
# Make the deal
Once satisfied with the terms, you can proceed to propose a deal to the miner, using the Data CID that you obtained during the import. Run:
lotus client deal
This command will interactively ask you for the CID, miner ID and duration in days for the deal. You can also call it with arguments:
lotus client deal <data CID> <miner> <price> <duration>
duration is expressed in blocks (1 block is equivalent to 30s).
# Securing a deal
Given the network's current speed and stability, users may find that individual deals with miners fail unexpectedly. For this reason, we suggest making up to 10 deals for each CAR file (opens new window) you want to store. While this may seem a bit over-kill, it's a simple way to increase the chances of a successful deal and your data being stored. This work-around will become less and less necessary as the network matures.
# Checking deal status
You can list deals with:
lotus client list-deals
Among other things, this will give you information about the current state on your deals, whether they have been published on chain (by the miners) and whether the miners have been slashed for not honoring them.
For a deal to succeed, the miner needs to be correctly configured and running, accept the deal and seal the file correctly. Otherwise, the deal will appear in error state.
You can make deals with multiple miners for the same data.
Once a deal is sucessful and the data is sealed, it can be retrieved.
# Additional tools
Filecoin.tools (opens new window) also allows you to check the status of your deal
Starling (opens new window) provides a set of utilities to add and monitor content to the Filecoin network, using a running Lotus Node.