How Filecoin works

This page gives a basic introduction to how the Filecoin network operates. While the Filecoin network is similar to other blockchain networks, there are some differences that developers looking to build on the network should be aware of.

The Network

The Filecoin network is a distributed, peer-to-peer network formed by Filecoin peers who participate in different ways.

Peers communicate over secure channels they use to distribute information to the network, also known as gossiping. Peers use these secure channels to transfer data and discover other peers. This communication creates a well-connected swarm in which information like blocks and messages flow swiftly, even when many thousands of peers participate.


Filecoin nodes are peers that sync the Filecoin blockchain and validate the messages in every block to provide a global state of the network.

Filecoin nodes can also broadcast different types of messages to the network. For example, a client can publish a message to send FIL from one address to another. Nodes can propose storage and retrieval deals to storage providers and pay for them as the network executes them.

Running a Filecoin node is a low-level task that usually implies keeping a program running constantly. Several Filecoin node implementations are in the works, with Lotus being the most advanced.

Storage providers

Storage providers (SPs) deliver services to the network by executing different types of deals. SPs also append new blocks to the chain every 30 seconds, for which they collect FIL rewards. Additional details about types of providers, rewards, and deals execution from the storage provider perspective can be found in the How providing storage works section.

Running a Filecoin storage provider is a highly-technical task with strong hardware requirements The lotus-miner application is currently the most advanced implementation of a Filecoin storage provider.


There are two main types of deals in Filecoin: storage deals and retrieval deals.

Storage deals

Storage deals are agreements between clients and storage providers to store data on the network. Once a user initiates a deal, and the storage provider has received the data to store, it will repeatedly prove that it is still storing the data so that it can collect rewards. If the storage provider cannot prove that they are still storing the data correctly, they are slashed and lose FIL.

Retrieval deals

Retrieval deals are agreements between clients and retrieval providers to extract data stored on the network. Unlike storage deals, these deals are fulfilled off-chain using payment channels to incrementally pay for the data received. Storage providers also often provide retrieval functions.


Storage providers must prove that they are storing the data following the terms of a storage deal. That means that:

  • They must store all the data submitted by the client.
  • They must store it during the whole lifetime of the deal.

Cryptographic proofs are used to these ends, as explained in this article about the Filecoin proof system.

Using Proof Of Replication (PoRep), storage providers demonstrate that they have received all the data and encoded it in a way unique to that storage provider. Using their physical storage in a way that no other storage provider is important since two deals for the same data cannot end up re-using the same disk. This proof is provided when the deal starts and the sealing operation completes.

Once a deal is active, the storage provider will use Proof of Spacetime (PoSt) to prove that it is still storing the data associated with a deal. For PoSt, random storage providers need to prove that random parts of the data they store are still there.

Filecoin clients and other storage providers continuously verify that the proofs included in each block are valid. This process delivers security and stability to the network by penalizing storage providers that do not honor their deals.

Gas fees

Executing messages consumes both computation and storage resources on the network. Gas is a measure of resources consumed by each message. The gas consumed by a message directly affects the cost the sender must pay for it to be included in a new block.

Historically in other blockchains, miners specify a gas fee in a unit of native currency and then pay the block-producing miners a priority fee based on how much gas is consumed by the message. Filecoin works similarly, except an amount of the fees is burned (sent to an irrecoverable address) to compensate for the network expenditure of resources since all nodes need to validate the messages. The idea is based on Ethereum’s EIP1559.

A dynamic BaseFee value determines the amount of fees burned in the Filecoin network. The BaseFee is automatically adjusted according to the network congestion parameters, also known as block sizes. Users can obtain the current value from one of the block explorers or by inspecting the current head of the chain.

Additionally, several gas-related parameters are attached to each message and determine the reward storage providers get. Here’s an overview of the terms and concepts:

Gas usage

The amount of gas that a message’s execution consumes. Nodes do not know how much gas a message will exactly consume ahead of execution, but it can be estimated. GasUsage is measured in units of Gas.

Base fee

The amount of FIL that gets burned per unit of gas consumed for the execution of every message. It is measured in units of attoFIL ÷ Gas.

Gas limit

A limit on the amount of gas a message’s execution can consume. This limit is estimated and specified by the message sender. It is measured in units of Gas. The sum of GasLimit for all messages included in a block must not exceed the BlockGasLimit. Messages will fail to execute if they run out of Gas, and the network will revert any effects of the execution.

Gas fee cap

The maximum token amount a sender is willing to pay per GasUnit for including a message in a block. It is measured in units of attoFIL / Gas. A message sender must have a minimum balance of GasFeeCap × GasLimit when sending a message, even though not all of that will be consumed. GasFeeCap can safeguard against high, unexpected BaseFee fluctuations.

Gas premium

A priority fee that is paid to the block-producing storage provider. This is capped by GasFeeCap. The BaseFee has a higher priority. It is measured in units of attoFIL ÷ Gas and can be as low as 1 attoFIL ÷ Gas.

Overestimation burn

An additional amount of gas to burn that grows larger when the difference between GasLimit and GasUsage is large.

Total cost

The total cost of a message for a sender will be:

(GasUsage × BaseFee FIL) + (GasLimit × GasPremium FIL) + (OverEstimationBurn × BaseFee FIL) = Total Cost

A message will always pay the burn fee regardless of the GasFeeCap used. Thus, a low GasFeeCap may result in a reduced GasPremium or even a negative one! In that case, the storage providers that include a message will have to pay the needed amounts out of their own pockets, which means they are unlikely to include such messages in new blocks.

Filecoin implementations may choose the heuristics of how their storage providers select messages for inclusion in new blocks, but they will usually attempt to maximize the storage provider’s rewards.


Actors are a software design pattern for managing state. Accounts, multisigs, storage providers, and account balances all have states, and are implemented as an actor.

Actors are the Filecoin equivalent of smart contracts in the Ethereum ecosystem. As such, actors are very central components of the system. Any change to the current state of the Filecoin blockchain has to be triggered through an actor.


In Filecoin, addresses are used to identify actors. There are four address types:

Address prefixDescription
0An ID address.
1A SECP256K1 public key address.
2An actor address
3A BLS public key address.

ID addresses

All actors have a short integer assigned to them by InitActor, a unique actor that can create new actors. This integer that gets assigned is the ID of that actor. An ID address is an actor’s ID prefixed with the network identifier and the address type.

Here’s the structure for the mainnet burn account ID address f099:

  Address type
f 0 9 9
|    |
|    Actor ID
Network identifier

ID addresses are often referred to by their shorthand f0.

Public key addresses

Actors managed directly by users, like accounts, are derived from a public-private key pair. If you have access to a private key, you can sign messages sent from that actor. The public key is used to derive an address for the actor.

Public key addresses allow devices, like hardware wallets, to derive a valid Filecoin address for your account using just the public key. The device doesn’t need to ask a remote node what your ID address is.

Filecoin supports both secp256k1 addresses that begin with f1, and BLS addresses that begin with f3.

Public key addresses are often referred to by their shorthand f1 or f3.

Robust addresses and ID addresses

Public key addresses are referred to as robust addresses as they do not depend on the Filecoin chain state.

Actor IDs are not robust and are defined on-chain by the InitActor. An actor ID can change for a brief time after its creation if the same ID is assigned to different actors on different forks. You can think of ID addresses as a monotonically increasing numeric primary key in a relational database. When a chain reorg occurs or a rollback in SQL terms, you can refer to the same ID for different rows. The expected consensus algorithm will resolve the conflict. Once the state that defines a new ID reaches finality, no changes can occur; the ID is bound to that actor forever.

Robust addresses provide a safe way to reference actors before the chain state is final. ID addresses are used as a space-efficient way to identify actors in the Filecoin chain state, where every byte matters, and in a human-friendly, concise form.

Actor addresses

Actor addresses provide a way to create robust addresses for actors not associated with a public key. They are generated by taking a sha256 hash of the output of the account creation. The ZH storage provider has the actor address f2plku564ddywnmb5b2ky7dhk4mb6uacsxuuev3pi and the ID address f01248.

Actor addresses are often referred to by their shorthand f2.

BLS public key addresses

In addition to secp256k1 f1 addresses, BLS addresses in Filecoin begin with f3. Filecoin uses curve bls12-381 for BLS signatures. Bls12-381 is a pair of two related curves: G1 and G2. Implementations of bls12-381 can vary based on if public keys are on G1 and signatures on G2 or vice-versa.

Filecoin uses G1 for public keys and G2 for signatures, as G1 allows for a smaller representation of public keys. This is the same design decision made with ETH2, but contrasts with, for instance, Zcash, which has signatures on G1 and public keys on G2.

Also, note that Filecoin stores and interprets private keys in little-endian order. This contrasts ETH2 keys, which also use bls12-381 but are stored in big-endian order.

BLS public key addresses are often referred to by their shorthand f3.

Built with

Filecoin is built on top of several mature projects:

  • Libp2p provides networking, addressing, and message distribution.
  • IPLD manages data formats, encoding, and content-addressed data structures.
  • IPFS enables data transfers.
  • Multiformats provides future-proof data types.

Additional resources

Here are some links to useful introductory materials about the technology that powers Filecoin and about Filecoin itself: